Web development is the process of creating websites.
The things that usually goes through a web developer's mind is what software shall power the website, how shall the user authentication be, how will the URLs look like, etc.
Most websites run on old php frameworks like wordpress or drupal or joomla.
Nowadays node based web servers are on a high. So is django and others.
Static (html) websites are the latest thing among coders and programmers. Like this website itself.
I use and love docpad. But I've also used jekyll in the past. If you're starting on jekyll, you may as well checkout octopress.
I use atom editor for coding web. Use autocomplete plugins, syntax highlighting, linter plugins (and beautifier if you can't write beautiful code on your own.)
Write accessible, valid HTML.
CSS can be hard to write manually. To make it easy there's LESS and SASS. These can be easily written and then converted to pure complete CSS easily.
Tools like gulp.js and yeoman allows you to automate most of the stuff in creating projects.
Don't Repeat Yourself
Front-end Job Interview Questions